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CT
Why choose imaging diagnosis ?
     Imaging diagnosis is an actual advanced medical discipline, necessary for accurate investigation (through capturing and processing of images) of organs in order to determine accurately the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases.
 
     Interventional radiology groups a number of different “medical acts” even if they start from similar medical principles and techniques. Their common point is the need to use imaging technology to guide accurately the medical procedures that should be carried out both in terms of proper diagnosis and subsequent therapeutic act.
 
     Depending on the medical procedures to be carried out, and on the organs viewed, the radiologist will determine the need for conventional radiography (RX), echography, tomography (CT), vascular radiology, magnetic resonance investigation (MRI), mammography, etc.
 
What is Computed Tomography (CT) ?
     Computed tomograph (CT) is a complex device which serves to produce images of our body. These images are used to make diagnosis that will provide maximum efficiency of the treatment prescribed by your doctor.
 
     CT scanner looks like a ring. Like most radiological devices, tomograph uses X-rays. Compared to conventional radiographies, in the tomograph’s case body images are “cut” and processed; most CTs allow obtaining images of different volumes (i.e. 3D). The images are obtained by rotating an “arch” that emits X-rays and receives information from the patient’s body through X-ray detectors that are always opposed to the emitters. The detector establishes the power of X-rays; the denser the tissue is the fewer rays pass through it. The detectors send the data to a computer. Different types of tissue with different density are shown on the image as different shades of grey or different colors. Thus the computer forms a whole cross-sectional image of the body.
 
     CT berth moves slightly before trough the “ring” to take the image of the next section. Modern scanners can produce three-dimensional images from received data.
 
     CT scanning is painless. The patient does not see nor feel X-rays.
 
Why CT ?
     A CT scan can be carried out to whatever body part. It can provide clear images of bones, soft tissues, which are not visualized by conventional radiography, such as muscles, internal organs, major blood vessels, brain and nerves. The investigation of the brain is the usual investigation, which determines the cause of ictus.
 
Others:
- To detect abnormalities in the body such as tumors, abscesses, abnormal blood vessels, blood clots, internal bleeding, etc., when there are suspicions due to symptoms or other tests.
- Diagnosis of cardiac or other cardiovascular diseases.
- It provides the surgeon with the information required in the area to be operated. To determine the exact location of the tumor to be irradiated (radiation).
 
What medicines can I take ?
     Please administer the medicines prescribed by your doctor.
 
What is the contrast substance ?
     The contrast substance is used to get clearer images. Depending on the type of procedure, the contrast substance may be administered either orally or by intravenous injection. The contrast substance can provoke a feeling of warmth to the patient or metallic taste in the mouth.
 
How to prepare ?
     Your doctor will tell you if you need to abstain from eating before the investigation. If so, then you will be asked not to eat 4-6 hours before the investigation. Certainly, moderate amounts of fluid are not prohibited (coffee, tea, juices and light soups). Plan to be in 30 minutes before the examination. You will be asked to fulfill a questionnaire on your medical history, medications you take, allergies etc. CT technician will approach you and will explain the course of the procedure and answer your questions. Depending on the part of the body to be examined, you will be asked to remove metal objects such as jewelry and to wear a special gown.
 
What does happen during the scanning ?
     The technician will take you to the CT room where you have to lie on the table for patients. You will make comfortable as it is very important that you do not move during the test. During the examination you will be asked to keep your breath in order to get clear images. The scanner will make some sounds, and the table will move slightly. Also, you may receive signals from the technician (or computer) on the breath. Depending on the type of investigation you can be administered contrast substance intravenously or be asked to ingest it. Contrast substance contains iodine, which can cause allergic reactions in some patients. If you have any reactions or other types of allergies to contrast substance notify immediately the technician, nurse or radiologist. If you feel uncomfortable during the examination, notify the health staff.
 
What type of CT system will be used for my examination ?
     The examination will be carried out with the Somatom Sensation 64 CT Siemens, which is the best on the European CT market. The speed and accuracy help to establish the diagnosis more precisely in a short period of time.
 
What are the advantages of a multi-slice scanner ?
     Multi-slice CT provides much clearer images and more complex details than traditional CTs, which helps the doctors to make more accurate diagnosis. Multi-slice CT is currently the fastest CT-device. The speed of multi-slice CT has made possible the visualization of mobile organs (heart, lungs and intestines).
 
Is CT investigation painful ?
     The investigation itself is generally painless and does not cause any body sensations.
 
How much time does the CT examination take ?
     Depending on the type of the examination, the typical duration of the procedure is 10-45 minutes. Please ask the technician or doctor about the duration of the investigation.
 
Can I move during the CT scanning ?
     Advanced CT technology requires only keeping your breath for a few seconds. Even in this case you should not move to minimize image blurring caused by motion.
 
Can I talk to someone during the examination ?
You can talk to the technician or ask questions between scannings.
 
Can someone stay with me during the CT scanning ?
     Given the fact that the scanner uses X-rays, other people should not be in the same room with the patient during the investigation. The operator/technician control the operation of the scanner from an adjacent room separated by an impenetrable X-ray window (it protects him/her from repeated exposure to radiation). The patient is always monitored on a screen and can talk at any time with medical staff through the intercom.
 
     Some people feel anxious or claustrophobic in the scanner room when they are alone. In such cases, a mild sedative can be administered. Kids may require general anesthesia to keep calm during the scanning in order to obtain qualitative images.
 
What happens after the scanning is finished ?
     Once the staff made sure that it collected enough information, you can leave and return to your activities without any restrictions. Usually the images will be “read” by the radiologist specialized in such examinations. A written report will be sent to the doctor that recommended CT investigation, who will discuss the results with you.
 
Will I need other additional tests after the CT scanning ?
     The answer will depend on the reason the doctor recommended CT examination; in most cases we carry out multiple tests to provide sufficient information in order to establish a correct diagnosis.
 
If I am breastfeeding, can I breastfeed after having been injected with contrast substance ?
     Please postpone breastfeeding for 24 hours after the investigation. You can squeeze the breast before examination to store milk and to use during these 24 hours.
 
What is a CT-guided biopsy ?

     It is a procedure for collecting a tissue sample, usually with a needle. The clinician uses CT to visualize and guide the needle to the relevant region.

What is coronary artery calcium score ?
     Calcium score is a new way to test the condition of the coronary arteries without penetrating the skin. This 5-minute examination uses scanner to look for calcium deposits in the coronary arteries. Calcium is a component of the arterial plaques; the accumulation of fats sticking to the walls of the arteries, cause atherosclerosis. The plaque which blocks the blood stream can lead to heart attack.
 
Are there any potential complications ?
     Complications are rare. Radiation dose required for CT investigation is quite low. Thus, the risk of damage is very low and this test is considered safe.
 
     Rarely, some people are allergic to the contrast substance, but it can be treated immediately. Seldom can the contrast substance affect the kidney of the patients who already suffer from kidney disorders.

     Pregnant women should avoid the CT scan, if possible, because there is a low risk that X-rays cause abnormalities in subsequent child’s development.
 
What can I expect from a CT scanning ?
     The scanning does not cause any effects. You can return to your normal activities immediately after the investigation. If you have been given a sedative, you will need someone to accompany you home. You shouldn’t drive the car until the sedatives effect wears out.
 
What if I have other questions ?
     If you have any questions regarding your CT examination, please do not hesitate to ask our staff. We will be glad to explain you in detail the procedure to make CT investigation as comfortable and fast as possible.
 
Advantages of Computed Tomography:
     Conventional radiography represents three-dimensional objects as two-dimensional image due to overlapping of tissues. Computed tomography solves this problem by scanning the body section with the narrow beams of X-rays that rotate around the body, producing an image of the body in a cross-section where different tissue types are seen. Another limitation of conventional radiography is its inability to differentiate two tissues with similar density, such as soft tissue and fluid collection. CT can make this distinction due to the narrow beam of rays and the use of so-called “windows”.
 
Disadvantages. The cost of the investigation.
     The radiation dose of a CT is much higher than in conventional X-Ray. During CT, the thorax of the patient receives a dose of 400 X-rays. Thus, many radiological departments insist that all requests for CT to be checked by a radiologist.
 
     Given the high exposure to X-rays during CT, the latter seeks to be replaced by MRI. Each person should consider ultrasound or MRI, as a CT alternative for children who are more susceptible to radiation. However, CT is more well-known than MRI and will remain one of the main diagnostic methods in the future, particularly in the diagnosis of cranium trauma and tumors.
 
     If you give a positive answer to one of the questions below, you must notify  the radiologist or nurse about this before starting the CT scanning:
- Do you suffer from allergies that cause hives, eczema or asthma ?
- Are you pregnant or likely to be or are you breastfeeding ?
- Do you have a chronic disease (diabetes, renal failure, etc.) ?
- Are you claustrophobic  or are you anxious ?
- In case of tomography there are two types of procedures:
 
     Examination without injection of contrast substance (in some investigations of the brain, lungs and joints) and examination with injection of contrast substance (abdominal, chest, brain investigations).
 
     For the examination with contrast substance you will not eat, drink or smoke 8-12 hours before the investigation. For some digestive examinations you will be asked to drink a contrast substance prior to injection of contrast substance. You will prepare for the investigation in a room adjacent to the computed tomograph before the examination. Contrast substance is injected in the forearm with a syringe with a very thin needle.
 
     Contrast substances have the property to become opaque to X-rays. These are made of chemical compounds based on iodine. During the injection, you can feel, besides the pick, how the contrast substance warms the entire body. This feeling of warmth is normal and it disappears in several minutes.
 
     Sometimes it is necessary to reinject the contrast substance during the examination. For this, the injection needle (branula) will be left in your arm.
 
     To carry out tomography you will be stretched out on a bed that moves inside the tomograph. The duration of examination may vary depending on the body part to be examined. It may take from a few up to 30 minutes for the longest examination.
 
     While the tomograph bed is moving you will remain stretched out, will not move and will breathe the way you are asked by the doctor or nurse.
 
What are the risks ?
     X-rays can be dangerous for the body; thus, you radiation doses must be complied with and the number of exposures at certain periods of time must be kept under control. The doctor will warn you on these issues in order to carry out the investigation in a regular way, without risk to your body.
 
     Contrast product may cause rare allergic reaction. If you are allergic to iodine, you will be given an antidote on the day of the examination that will reduce unpleasant reactions.
 
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Infoline and Appointments
84 00 00
bd. Negruzzi 4/2
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